四级语法要点解析(3) 更新日期:2014-08-18 编辑:tudougege

分词

  1. 现在分词与过去分词的区别

  现在分词与过去分词的区别主要体现在时间和语态上。现在分词表示正在进行的动作并表示主动的意义,而过去分词表示已经完成的动作并表示被动的意义。比较:

  a changing world(一个变化着的世界);a changed world( 一个已经起变化的世界)

  surprising news(令人惊讶的消息);surprised people(感到惊讶的人们)

  2. 分词作状语

  作状语时,表示时间、原因、方式、结果、条件、让步和伴随情况等。另外,作状语时,它的逻辑主语应与句子的主语一致。

  Hearing the news, he heaved a sigh of relief.

  Given another chance, I’ll do it much better.

  3. 分词作定语

  分词常用来修饰名词或代词作定语。单个的分词作定语时,通常放在被修饰词之前;分词短语作定语时,通常放在被修饰词之后。但有些单个的过去分词作定语时,也可放在被修饰词之后。

  He’s a spoilt child.

  The man standing over there is our new English teacher.

  Where are we to get the material needed?

  4. 分词作宾语补足语

  分词可在感觉动词和使役动词后作宾语补足语。常用的感觉动词主要有:see, hear, notice, watch, find, observe, smell等。常用的使役动词主要有:get, have, keep, leave, set, make, let等。此外,分词还可在want, like, wish, order等表示希望、要求、命令等意义的动词后作宾语补足语。

  She watched her baby sleeping.

  I got my hair cut.

  I don’t want you worrying about me.

  5. 分词与连词的连用

  分词可与各种连词(如:when, while, once, until, if, unless, though, although, even if, as, as if, as though等)连用。连词+分词(短语)的结构在句中作状语,相当于状语从句。

  She’ll get nervous when speaking in public.

  He went on talking, though continually interrupted.

  6. 分词的独立结构

  分词作状语时,其逻辑主语与句子的主语应该一致;否则,分词应有自己的逻辑主语,构成分词的独立结构。独立结构一般位于句首,作伴随状语以及在科技文章中表示附加说明时,它常位于句末。分词的独立结构由名词、代词+分词构成,可以表示时间、原因、条件、方式或伴随情况等。

  Weather permitting, the football match will be played on Wednesday.

  Her son having been sent to school, she began to do some shopping.

  He returned three days later, his face covered with mud and his clothes torn into pieces.

  There were two parties yesterday evening, each attended by some students.

评论

返回顶部