英语四级语法之主谓倒装 更新日期:2016-06-28 编辑:爱语吧

 

四级语法对很多人来说都是模糊的,但是语法涉及到考试的方方面面,用好这个语法点我们的翻译还有作文都可以高效备考,下面就跟小编一起看看倒装这个语法点是怎么应用的吧!

 

主语和谓语是句子的核心,它们之间有两种语序:一是主语在谓语之前称为自然语序(Natural Order);二是主语在谓语之后则称为倒装语序(Inverted Order)。而倒装语序中又有全部倒装(Full Inversion)和部分倒装(Partial Inversion)两种情况。


首先,在全部倒装的句子中,要把整个谓语放在主语的前面去而构成倒装语序。
例如:
There are large numbers of students in the lecture hall.
(在There be…的句式中,There只是个引导词而不是主语,真正的主语是后面作表语的名词或者名词短语。因此,There be…的句式都是全部倒装的句子。)演讲厅里有大量的学生。
When he ran to the door, there stood a mid-aged man with a lantern in his hand .
(此句是为了"描述情节的需要",把倒装当着修辞的手段而写成了全部倒装句。句子的主语是a mid-aged man,谓语是stood 。)当他向房门跑去时,那儿正立着一位手里拿着一盏灯笼的中年男人。

另外,在部分倒装的句子中,只把谓语的一部分(如情态动词、助动词、或是系动词be)放到主语的前面去,构成倒装语序。例如:
Are you going to take part in the football match against Accounting Department on Friday afternoon? (句子的谓语是are going to take part,are是句子的谓语的一部分;句子的主语是you 。所以,此句是部分倒装的句子。疑问句都是部分倒装句。)你打算去参加星期五与会计系进行的足球赛吗?
Hardly could he finish his test paper when the school bell rang .(由于语法要求的原因,本句写成了部分倒装的句子。它的自然语序应该是:When the bell rang, he could hardly finish his test paper.)他还未做完试卷,下课铃就响了。

了解了倒装语序的构成情况后,我们再来看看倒装语序在各种不同类句子中的使用情况:

A. 在疑问句中
各种疑问句一般地说都是倒装语序。例如:
Will they come to see us this weekend ? 这个周末他们将来看我们吗?
Are you talking about the film you saw last Monday ?
你们是在谈论你们上周一看的那部电影吗?
Can you speak another foreign language except English?
除开英语,你还能说另一种外语吗?
Where did you buy the dictionary, in the book store nearby or in Xinhua bookstore?
你在哪儿买的这本词典,是在附近的书店还是在新华书店?
She is not a student, isn‘t she ? 她不是个学生,对吗?

B. 在感叹句中
某些感叹句也用倒装语序。例如:
Isn‘t it a beautiful garden ! 多么美丽的花园啊!
What a beautiful garden it is ! 多么美丽的花园啊!(在这种句式中,主语在谓语之前,属于自然语序。对于主语和谓语而言,语序没有倒装。)
Have you ever seen such a naughty kid like him !
你见过那个孩子像他这么调皮!

C. 在陈述句中
陈述句在一般情况下用自然语序;但由于英语语法的某些原因,陈述句也要使用倒装语序。这些原因大致可以归纳
1) 为了避免句子部分内容不必要的重复,常用"so + be动词(助动词、情态动词)+主语"或"neither / nor + be动词(助动词、情态动词)+主语"的倒装句式。其中第一个句式表示"与前面所述的肯定情况相同", 第二个句式表示"与前面所述的否定情况相同"。例如:
His brother is a college student; so is mine.
他弟弟是大学生,我弟弟也是。
His brother is not a college student; nor is min .
他弟弟不是大学生,我弟弟也不是。
He used to have his further study abroad; so did I.
他曾去国外深造过,我也去过。
He didn‘t use to have his further study abroad; neither did I.
他没去国外深造过,我也没有。
One of my friends can speak three foreign languages; so can his wife.
我的一个朋友会说三门外国语,他的妻子也会。
One of my friends cannot speak three foreign languages; neither can his wife .我的一个朋友不会说三门外国语,他的妻子也不会。
They are now preparing for their final examinations; so are we .
他们正在为期末考试作准备,我们也一样。
They are not now preparing for their final examinations; nor are we .他们没在为期末考试作准备,我们也没有。

2)具有否定意义的词或短语置于句首时(除否定词修饰主语外),句子一般要写成部分倒装句。这类词或短语常见的有:not, never, seldom, hardly, rarely, scarcely, by no means, under no circumstances, in no way, at no time, no sooner … (than), hardly … (when), not only … (but also), not until… ,等。例如:
Hardly had she sat down when she heard someone knocking at the door .
她还没来得及坐下来,就听见有人敲门。
Not until twelve o‘clock did he go to bed last night .
他昨晚直到十二点钟才睡觉。
Never have my sisters been to Hong Kong before .
我的妹妹们以前从未去过香港。
No sooner had I returned home from New Zealand than I bought a house and went to live there.我从新西兰一回国,就买了一栋房子并在那儿住下了。
So far as I know, seldom does Mary come back to see her mother.
就我所知,玛利几乎很难回来看她妈妈。
Scarcely a drop of rain fell here last fall . (否定词修饰主语时,句子不用倒装。) 去年秋天,这儿几乎没下一滴雨。

3)当so, often, only等表示程度、频率的副词放在句首时,句子一般要倒装。例如:
Only in this way can you come up with a solution to the problem.
只有这样,你才有可能想出解决这个问题的办法。
So serious was the situation that everybody faced a test.
形势如此地严峻,每个人都面临着一场考验。
So hard did he overwork that he fell ill at last. 他太操劳过度以致最后病倒了。

4)当there, here, then, now等副词在句首,且谓语是come, go, be等动词时,句子一般要全部倒装。其意义在于引起他人的注意。如果这类句子的主语是代词,则不用写成倒装句。例如:
Now, here goes the story.这个故事是这样的。
Look, there comes the taxi.瞧,出租车过来了。
Then came another question.然后又一个问题提出来了。
Then followed the four-year War of Liberation.接下来是四年的解放战争。

5) 当out, in, away, up, bang等表示方位或拟声词放在句首时,句子一般要全部倒装。这类子比自然语序的句子更为生动、形象。但如果这类句子的主语是代词,则不用写成倒装句。例如:
Bang goes my ace.我砰地一下打出了"爱司"。
Away flew the bird.那鸟飞走了。
Suddenly, in came a man with a mask on his face.
突然进来一个蒙着面具的人。

6) 其他情况还有:省略了if的虚拟条件句、某些表示祝愿的句子、以及某些让步状语从句,等等也要用倒装句式。例如:(省略了if的虚拟条件句)
Had they not helped us, we could not have done it so successfully.
如果没有他们的帮助,我们不可能把那件事办的如此成功。
Should he come, say "Nobody in" to him.
万一他来了,对他说:"公司没人。"(某些表示祝愿的句子)
May our friendship last forever.愿我们的友谊常存!
May your company become prosperous.祝贵公司生意兴隆!(某些让步状语从句)
Try as I might, I couldn‘t lift the stone.无论我使多大的劲,我也无法搬起那块石头。
They said they would follow the Party‘s lead come what might.
他们说无论发生什么情况,他们都会跟党走的。

7) 由于修辞或是平衡句子的原因也可以用倒装句;也可以不用。这不是一条必须的规定。
Next to this one is another grand hotel which is beautifully decorated .
这家饭店隔壁还有一家装修华丽的大饭店。
On either side of the great avenue stood many block buildings.
这条大街的两侧都耸立着许多综合楼。(这类句子也可以不用倒装句。)
"I‘m leaving for Beijing tomorrow," said Tom to his mother (OR: Tom said to his mother) .汤姆对他妈妈说:"我明天动身去北京。"
Many block buildings stood on either side of the great avenue.
许多综合楼耸立在这条大街的两侧。
Another grand hotel, which is beautifully decorated, is next to this one .

这家饭店隔壁还有一家大饭店,那家饭店装修十分华丽。

 

希望大家可以好好利用这部分,完美备考四级考试。

 

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